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Q.1- Give a brief description of functions of c- AMP ? Justify its role as a second messenger in hormonal action.

Q.2- Distinguish between:

a) Nucleoside and Nucleotide

b) Denaturation and Renaturation

c) Ribonucleotide and Deoxyribonucleotide

d) Uridine and Pseudouridine

e) Nucleotides in RNA and DNA

Q.3- Name the components of a nucleotide and show the order in which they are linked together,

Q.4-Why ATP is called the “energy currency of a cell”? Support your answer giving suitable examples.

Q.5- Name base and nucleoside analogs used as anticancer drugs.

Q,6- What is meant by hyperchromicity of denaturation?

Q.7- a) “Uracil is not present in DNA”, suggest the possible reason?

 b) ‘Thymine nucleotides are not present in RNA but exception to the rule is there’, give example in support of the statement.

Q.8- Discuss the biological significance of nucleotides?

Q.9- Compare and contrast the B and Z forms of DNA.

Q.10- Explain the extent to which the Watson-Crick structure of DNA is compatible with Chargaff’s rule.

Q-11- Explain how base-paired segments may occur in a single strand of RNA.

Q.12- Explain the following terms in the context of RNA structure: (a) poly A tail (b) cap.

Q.13- The following base sequence represents part of the transcribing strand of DNA     5’TACCATGGGCCC.3’

 (a) Give the orientation and base sequence of the complementary strand.

(b) Give the orientation and base sequence of the RNA that is  synthesized from it.

Q.14-Enlist the important differences between DNA and RNA

Q.15-Draw a well labeled diagram of secondary structure of t RNA and describe the significance of each of its arm. Why is t RNA called an adapter molecule?

Q.16- Discuss the functions of different types of RNAs present in a cell?

Q.17- Discuss the role played by Histones in DNA packaging?

Q.18- Draw a well labeled diagram showing the secondary structure of DNA. Discuss the salient features of Watson and Crick model of double stranded structure of DNA.

Q.19-Give a brief account of the small RNA s present in a cell. Discuss the significance of each of them.

Q.20-What is meant by polarity of DNA? What is its significance in replication or transcription mechanisms?

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