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1-Describe the role of tumor suppressor genes in human carcinogenesis.

2- List, giving an example for each, the ways by which proto-oncogenes can be converted to oncogenes.

3- Chromosomal translocations  is  the hallmark of certain human malignancies. What is known of the biochemical consequences of these cytogenic rearrangements and how these contribute to the development of some cancers?

4- Explain how retroviruses may cause heritable cancers in susceptible animals.

5- Name two different classes of enzyme inhibitors which are used as anticancer drugs. Cite an example of each and explain the mechanism by which each drug interferes with cell growth and division.

6- How do DNA tumor viruses cause cellular transformation?

7- With the aid of a suitable example each, explain the difference (a) between procarcinogens and ultimate carcinogen (b) between proto-oncogene and oncogenes

8- Give a brief account of the biochemical or morphological changes a cell undergoes when it is transformed to a malignant cell.

9- What is the biochemical basis of using certain biomolecules as tumor markers? Give an account of tumor markers used as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

10-Give an account of role of p 53 as a tumor suppressor protein

11- What are chemical carcinogens?  Enlist important chemical carcinogens and state the general mechanism by which chemicals induce carcinogenesis.

12- What is meant by Insertional mutagenesis? Give examples in support of your answer.

13- State the mechanism of action of Methotrexate as an anticancer drug. Enlist some of the important anticancer drugs used in clinical practice.

14- Distinguish between initiators and promoters in the induction of tumors.

15- Give an account of Ames test used for detection of mutagenic potential of chemicals

16- Describe giving examples  the mechanisms  by which  oncogenic products cause malignant transformation of cells.

17- The chronic smokers are more prone to lung cancer as well as various other malignancies, explain the reason ?

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