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Enzyme Pathway Effect of substrate concentration Allosteric modification/ Feedback Inhibition Induction/

Repression

Hexokinase Glycolysis   Feedback inhibition by Glucose-6-P
Glucokinase Glycolysis Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Induced by Insulin

Repressed by-

 Glucagon

Phospho

fructokinase-1

Glycolysis Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Activators-5’AMP,

fructose 6-phosphate,

fructose 2,6-bisphosphate

Inhibitors

Citrate, ATP,

Induced by Insulin

Repressed by

 Glucagon

Pyruvate Kinase Glycolysis Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Activators-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate,

insulin

 

Inhibitors

ATP,

alanine,

glucagon

Induced by Insulin 

Repressed by Glucagon

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Pyruvate to Acetyl Co A Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Activators-CoA, NAD+,

insulin,

ADP,

Pyruvate

 

Inhibitors

Acetyl CoA,

NADH,

ATP (fatty acids, ketone bodies)

 
Pyruvate carboxylase Gluconeogenesis Inhibited by high carbohydrate diet 

Stimulated during fasting

 Activator-Acetyl CoA

Inhibitor

ADP

 Induced by Glucocor-ticoids, glucagon, 

epinephrine

 

Repressed by

Insulin

Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase Gluconeogenesis Inhibited by high carbohydrate diet 

Stimulated during fasting

Activator-Citrate

 

Inhibitor

AMP,

Fr 2,6 bisphosphate

Induced by 

Glucocortic-oids,

 glucagon,

epinephrine

 

Repressed by

Insulin

Glucose-6-P dehydrogenase HMP pathway Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Activator-NADP+ Induced by Insulin
Glycogen

Synthase

Glycogenesis Stimulated by high carbohydrate diet 

Activity decreased during fasting

Activators-Glucose and Glucose-6-P

and Insulin (By causing dephosphorylation)

inhibitors

Glucagon(By c AMP mediated phosphorylation)

 

 
Glycogen

Phosphorylase

Glycogenolysis Stimulated during fasting Inhibited in the fed state Activators-Ca ++,

Low Glucose concentration,

Glucagon (By c AMP mediated phosphorylation)

Inhibitor-

Insulin (By causing dephosphorylation)

 

 

 

 

 

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