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1- Name the major proteins of plasma.

(Albumin, Globulin and Fibrinogen)

2-Name the transport proteins

(Albumin, Lipoproteins, Prealbumin, Transthyretin, Retinol Binding protein, Thyroxin binding Globulin)

3-How many copper atoms can bind to one molecule of ceruloplasmin?


4-What is A: G ratio, what is its range in the normal health?                  

(1.2:1 to 1.5:1)

5-What is the most significant sign of hypoproteinemia?


6-Almost all proteins except Globulins are synthesized in the liver, True or false?


7-Name the negative phase proteins

(Albumin, Transthyretin, Transferrin etc.)

8-What are the different types of light chains?

( Kappa and Lambda)

9-Which immunoglobulin is the major antibody of primary immune response


10-What is the function of the secretory piece of the IgA?

(It protects the antibody from proteolytic digestion)

11-What is the actual meaning of Fc and Fab ?

(These are the two portions of immunoglobulins produced after proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin. Fc denotes fragment crystallisable and Fab denotes antigen binding fragment)

12-Which form of Ig M – monomeric or polymeric acts as a receptor on the surface of B lymphocytes.

( Monomeric form)

13-Which form (Alpha helical, Beta pleated sheet or triple helical) predominates in the structure of collagen?                                     

(Triple helical)

14-What are the different types of heavy chains present in different types if immunoglobulins?

(α, β,γ,δ, Σ)

15-What types of globin chains  are present in Fetal Hemoglobin?

(Two alpha and 2 Gamma)

16-What is methaemoglobin?

( Hb in which iron is in the oxidized form(Ferric form )

17-25 % of the structure of hemoglobin is in the alpha helical form- state true or false?

(False- 75% is in the alpha helical form)

18-Name the beta globulins of biological significance

(Transferrin, Haemopexin, Complement etc)

19-What is the nature of ceruloplasmin?

(Alpha 2 globulin)

20-What is the function of Transferrin?

(Transfer of iron)

21-What is the function of fibrinogen?

(Blood clotting and viscosity)

22-What is the clinical significance of C- reactive protein ?

(Acute phase protein, activates complement, also helps in the formation of haem)

23-What is meant by opsonization?

(Coating the surface of antigen by antibodies)

24-What is the difference between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?

(Monoclonal means antibodies of only one specificity while polyclonal means antibodies of different specificities)

25-Hepato lenticular degeneration is observed due to deficiency of which plasma protein?


26-What is the function of complement protein ?

(These are defense molecules present in the plasma in the inactive form, required for pathogenic killing)

27-Enumerate the causes of hypo Albuminemia?

(Hypovolemia, mal nutrition, cirrhosis of liver, losses from the body ),

28-Give two causes of hyperproteinemia

(Hemoconcentration, malignancies, chronic infections)

29-What is class switching?

(The switch from one class of immunoglobulin to another class is called class switching)

30-How are the light chain and heavy chains linked together?

 ( By disulphide linkages)

31-What is the function of carbohydrate in the structure of immunoglobulins?

( It is required for the secretion of antibodies by the plasma calls)

32-Which antibody is called as the mucosal barrier?

( Ig A)

33-Which antibody is called as the Millionaire molecule?

 ( Ig M )

34-How is the rate of catabolism of Ig G affected by its serum concentration?

( It is a direct relationship, more the concentration more is the rate  of catabolism

 35- How many polypeptide chains are present in the structure of myoglobin?


36-Which out of the two (Myoglobin and hemoglobin) has more affinity for Oxygen?


37-Name two proteins that bind thyroid hormone

(Thyroxin binding protein and Transthyretin)

38-What will be the effect of excessive vomiting on plasma protein concentration ?

( It will result in hyperproteinemia due to hemoconcentration)

39-In a chronic alcoholic patient plasma protein concentration should be lower than normal or higher?

(Lower than normal)

40- What is the function of Transcobalamine?

(Transporter of B12)

41-What are Bence jone’s proteins?

These are light chain Immuno globulins excreted in the urine of a patient suffering from multiple myeloma.

 42– What are the clinical features observed in a patient of multiple myeloma ?

(Weight loss, punched out lesions, anemia , increased frequency of infections)

43-What are the component chains in HbA1?

( 2 alpha and 2 delta)

 44 What is the cause of emphysema in alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency?

(Inactivated Elastase which causes damage to the lung tissues)


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