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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder due to a frameshift mutation in the muscle protein “Dystrophin”. The patients have proximal muscle weakness and muscle fibrosis, with death occurring as a result of cardiac or respiratory failure.

Which ‘one’ of the following statements correctly describes a frameshift mutation?

A. The frameshift mutations occur due to substitution of the base analogs

B. The reading frame beyond the mutation remains unaltered

C. A frameshift mutation may not produce effects due to degeneracy of the genetic code

D. Insertion or deletion of three nucleotides does not alter the reading frame beyond the site

E. There is always a premature termination of the growing peptide chain due to generation of stop codon.

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