A) Structure and Functions of Nucleic acids
i) Give a detailed account of the structure of DNA and differentiate between three major forms of DNA in a tabular manner.
ii) Differentiate between RNA and DNA in a tabular manner.
iii) Give a diagrammatic representation of secondary structure of t- RNA
B) Replication, DNA damage and DNA repair system
iv) Give a brief account of the following in relation to Replication of DNA:
a) Okazaki fragments
b) Replication Fork
c) Proofreading and Editing function of DNA polymerase
d) Inhibitors of DNA replication
e) Mechanism of action and clinical significance of Telomerase
f) Causes and types of DNA damage
g) DNA Repair system
v) Differentiate between :
a) Helicase and Topoisomerase
b) 3′-5′ exonuclease activity and 5′-3′ exonuclease activity
c) DNA polymerase I and III
d) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA replication
vi) Explain the biochemical basis of the following statements:
a) DNA replication is semi -conservative in nature
b) DNA Polymerase always requires a primer
c) DNA Replication is semi -discontinuous
d) Template reading is always from 3′-5′ direction while the polymerization takes place from 5′-3′ direction
vii) Describe the salient features of DNA transcription and highlight the important differences between prokaryotic Replication and Transcription.
viii) Write short note on each of the following:
a) RNA polymerase
b) Transcription unit
c) Prokaryotic promoters
d) Termination of Transcription
e) Inhibitors of transcription
ix) What are post- transcriptional modifications ? Discuss the mechanism and significance (Biological and clinical) of these modifications.
D) Genetic code and Mutations
x) Describe the characteristics and significance of genetic code
xi) What is wobble hypothesis ? Discuss its significance.
xii) What are mutations ? Classify and describe the consequences of mutations.
xiii) Write short note and give examples in support of your answer:
a) Effect of degeneracy of genetic code on mutations
b) Diseases due to point mutations
c) Diseases due to splice site mutations
d) Gene deletion
e) Code deletion
f) Chromosomal translocation
g) RNA editing
h) Run- on- peptide
xiv- Give an account of the substances required for the process of translation and diagrammatically represent the process of initiation and elongation of translation highlighting the sites of inhibitors of translation.
xv) Give an account of the post- translational modifications.
xvi) Write short note on-
a) Shine Delgarno sequence
b) Termination of translation
c) Inhibitors of translation
F) Gene Expression
xvii) Give an account of status of lac Operon under the following conditions-
a) No lactose in the medium
b) Both glucose and lactose are there in the medium
c) Only lactose is there in the medium.
xviii) Enlist the major differences between regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, and briefly describe the important mechanisms by which the gene expression can be regulated in eukaryotes. Support your answer with suitable examples and diagrams.
xix) Write short note on each of the following:
a) Induction and repression
b) Constitutive genes
c) Double negative control
d) Type-A response
e) Operator and Operon
G) Recombinant DNA technology
xx) Write short note on each of the following:
a) Restriction endonucleases
b) Vectors of cloning
c) DNA probes
d) DNA Libraries
e) PCR (Polymerase chain reaction )
f) Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
g) DNA fingerprinting
h) Southern hybridization
i) Western blotting
j) Applications of Recombinant DNA technology in the field of Medicine
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