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i) Describe the characteristics of HIV structure and genome, state the function of each of its components. Support your answer by neat, well labeled diagrams.

ii) Give a diagrammatic representation of pathogenesis of HIV infection

iii) Describe the phases of HIV infection ; comment on the clinical manifestations and underlying biochemical basis of each of the major symptoms.

iv) Enlist the important tests for the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection

Water and electrolyte balance and imbalance

i) Describe the role of various  hormones in maintaining water and electrolyte balance of the body.

ii) Give a brief account of the Renin Angiotensin system.

iii) Enlist the causes of –

a) Hyponatremia

b) Hypernatremia

c) Hypokalemia and

d) Hyperkalemia

Acid base balance and imbalance

i) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Blood buffers

b) Role of hemoglobin

c) Role of kidney in the maintenance of acid base balance of the body

d) Anion Gap

ii) Give an account of the causes, compensation, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of-

a) Metabolic acidosis

b) Metabolic  alkalosis.

ii) Differentiate between respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis in a tabular manner

Organ function tests

i) Give an account of the functions of liver and briefly describe the tests based on based on-

a) Bilirubin metabolism,

b) Synthetic functions of liver

ii) Write short note on-

a) Van den Bergh Reaction

b) Hippuric acid excretion test

c) Serum enzymes in liver diseases.

iii) Define clearance and highlight the important points to consider creatinine clearance as better than urea clearance.

iv) Discuss the significance of specific gravity determination in assessing the kidney functions.

v) Enlist important tests for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Miscellaneous questions

1) Write the Clinical  significance and the reaction catalyzed by-

a) Amido transferase

b) PRPP synthetase

c) OMP decarboxylase

d) Adenosine deaminase


f) Xanthine oxidase

g) Adenylo Succinate synthetase

2) Enlist two important functions of a –

a) DNA dependent RNA polymerase

b) RNA dependent RNA polymerase

c) DNA dependent DNA polymerase

d) RNA dependent DNA polymerase

3) Justify the following statements-

a) Deficiency of urea cycle enzymes leads to Orotic aciduria

b) Deficiency of Glucose-6-Phosphatase can lead to gouty arthritis

c) Excessive alcohol consumption can precipitate gouty arthritis

d) Telomerase is considered a biological clock

e) PCR is a better choice than cloning

f) Methotrexate is an anticancer drug.


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