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1) Diet and nutrition

i) What is BMR ? Give an account of the factors that affect BMR.

ii) What is Respiratory Quotient (RQ)? What is its clinical significance?

iii) Differentiate between Marasmus and Kwashiorkor in a tabular manner highlighting the causes, clinical manifestations, metabolic or clinical complications, laboratory diagnosis and treatment.

iv) Elaborate on causes and complications of Obesity.

v) Write short note on each of the followings 

a) Mutual supplementation of nutrients

b) Sparing action,

c) Glycemic index

d) SDA (Specific dynamic action)

e) Dietary Fiber

2) Detoxification

i) Give an account of phase 2 reactions of detoxification of xenobiotics

ii) How are the following compounds detoxified in the body?

a) Bilirubin

b) Alcohol – Methyl and Ethyl alcohol

c) Aspirin

d) Digitalis

e) Phenyl acetic acid

iii) Write in brief about the properties of cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

3) Cancers

i) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Chemical carcinogenesis

b) Biochemistry of cancer cells

c) Tumor markers

d) Anticancer drugs

e) Tumor suppressor genes

ii) Give a brief account of the mechanisms by which the proto oncogenes are converted to Oncogenes

4) Chemistry of nucleotides

i) Briefly describe the structure, functions and clinical significance of C- AMP

ii) Describe the structure, mechanism of formation and functions of ATP.      

iii) Enlist the biologically important nucleotides

5) Metabolism of nucleotides

i) Give a brief account of the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, What is its biological and clinical significance ?

ii) Describe in detail about the steps and regulation of  de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides

iii) Describe in brief about the biochemical defect, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of

a)  Lesch Nyhan syndrome

 b) Gout  

c) Orotic aciduria

iii) Describe the role of folic acid in nucleotide biosynthesis.

6) Biochemical techniques

i) Describe the principle, procedure and significance of-

a) ELISA (Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay)

b) TLC (Thin layer chromatography)

c)  Paper electrophoresis

d) PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)

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