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7) – Vitamins

i) Give an account of the  functions /coenzyme role and describe the clinical consequences of deficiency of each of the following vitamins

a) Thiamine

b) Niacin

c) B12

d) Vitamin C

e) Vitamin D

ii) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Role of Folic acid in one carbon metabolism

b) Role of B6-P in amino acid metabolism

c) Role of vitamin K in coagulation

d) Visual cycle

e) Folate trap

8) – Minerals

i) Give an account of functions of calcium and elaborate on role of various hormones in maintaining serum calcium concentration.

ii) Briefly describe the functions of iron and elaborate on iron overload.

iii) Write short note on each of the followings

a) Mucosal block theory of iron absorption

b) Iron deficiency anemia

c) Wilson’s disease

9)-Carbohydrate metabolism

i) Write short note on –

a) Lactose intolerance

b) Glucose transporters

c) Significance of 2,3 BPG (2,3 Bisphosphoglycerate)

d) Amphibolic role of TCA cycle

e) Cori’s cycle

f) Significance of HMP pathway (Biological and clinical)

f) Barriers of gluconeogenesis

g) Causes of hypo and hyperglycemia

h) Glucose Tolerance test

i) Formation and fate of pyruvate

ii) Discuss the steps and regulation of-

a) Glycolysis

b) Glycogen synthesis and degradation

iii) Discuss the biochemical defect, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of the following diseases-

a) Von-Gierke’s disease

b) Essential pentosuria

c) Classical galactosemia

d) Hereditary fructose intolerance

10) – Diabetes Mellitus

i) Differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

ii) Give a brief account of the followings-

a) Metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus

b) Laboratory diagnosis

c) Complications of uncontrolled hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus

iii) Give the biochemical basis of the followings in relation to diabetes mellitus-

a) Premature cataract

b) Weight loss

c) Fruity odor of breath in uncontrolled type 1 DM

d) Hyperlipidemia and risk of IHD

e) Increased susceptibility to infections

f) Impaired wound healing

11) – Lipid metabolism

i) Discuss the role of carnitine in fatty acid oxidation,

ii) Describe the steps of beta oxidation and give the details of energy yield upon complete  oxidation of one molecule of Palmitic acid.

iii) Give a diagrammatic representation of fatty acid synthase complex and elaborate on regulation of fatty acid synthesis.

iii) Describe in brief the steps and regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis

iv) Describe the general structure, classification and functions of lipoproteins.

v) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Fatty liver and lipotropic agents

b) Hyperlipidemia and lipid lowering drugs

c) Ketosis

vi) Describe the following diseases giving biochemical defect, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and treatment-

a) Zellweger syndrome

b) Jamaican sickness

c) Refsum disease

12) – Amino acid metabolism

i) Differentiate between-

a)Transamination and deamination

b) CPS-1 and CPS-2

c) Glutamate dehydrogenase, Glutaminase and Glutamine synthetase

ii) Give an account of the followings-

a) Ammonia intoxication

b) Nitrogen balance

c) Transmethylation reactions

d) Polyamines

e) Steps of urea cycle

iii) Describe the metabolic role of-

a) Glycine

b) Tyrosine

c) Tryptophan

Iv) Describe the following diseases –

a) Alkaptonuria

b) Albinism  

c) PKU (Phenylketonuria)

d) Hartnup  disease

e) Maple syrup urine disease

f) Cystinuria,

g) Homocysteinemia

13) Heme synthesis and degradation 

i) Give a brief outline of the steps of heme synthesis and highlight the enzyme deficiencies to cause porphyria.

ii) Write short note on

a) Sickle cell disease

b) Beta Thalassemia

c) Methemoglobinemia

iii) Give an outline of differential diagnosis of jaundice in a tabular form.


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