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1) Chemistry of Carbohydrates

i)  What is Mutarotation ? Describe its biochemical basis in reference to glucose.

ii) Give a brief account of sugar alcohols mentioning the biological /clinical significance of each of them.

iii) What are Glycosides ? Give examples of clinically important glycosides.

iv) Differentiate between –

a) Amylose and Amylopectin

b) Lactose and sucrose

c) Anomers and epimers

v)  Describing the chemistry of cellulose, state the reason for Cellulose being not considered a nutrient  despite having  all glucose residues.

vi) State the reason –

a) Glucose is a better fuel molecule as compared to fatty acids and ketone bodies 

b) Glycogen is a storage form of glucose since glucose cannot be stored as such.

c) Heparin is used clinically as an anticoagulant and is also called clearing factor

2) Chemistry of lipids

i)  What are essential fatty acids ? Describe the functions and clinical consequences of deficiency of essential fatty acids.

ii) Describe the structure and functions of cholesterol. State the  clinical conditions of variations of serum cholesterol levels.

iii) Describe the chemistry and functions of  Phospholipids

iv) Differentiate between-

a) Cerebrosides and Gangliosides

b) Prostacyclin and Thromboxane

c) Omega -3 and Omega -6 fatty acids

v) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Liposomes

b) Rancidity

c) Functions of Eicosanoids

vi) Describe the biochemical defect, clinical manifestations and  laboratory diagnosis of-

a) Tay Sach’s

b) Niemann Pick’s disease and

c) Gaucher’s disease

3) Chemistry of amino acids and proteins

i) Give an account of-

a) Derived amino acids

b) Biologically important peptides

c) Conjugated proteins

d) Denaturation

ii) Give an account of the structure of protein, describe the structure function relationship in reference to protein unfolding and misfolding.

4) Plasma proteins and specialized proteins

i) Describe the functions of plasma proteins

ii) State the conditions of variations of serum total protein levels.

 iii) Describe the structure and functions of immunoglobulins

iv) What are Bence jone’s proteins ? What is their clinical significance ?

5) Enzymology

i) Differentiate between-

a) Cofactors, coenzymes and prosthetic group

b) Zero order and first order reaction

c) Zymogens and zymases

d) Competitive and non competitive inhibition

ii) Give an account of-

a) Factors affecting enzyme activity

b) Regulation of enzyme activity

c) Isoenzymes and their clinical significance

6) Biological oxidation

i) Give a diagrammatic representation of organization of electron transport chain highlighting the sites of site specific inhibitors and ATP formation.

ii) Write short note on each of the followings-

a) Redox potential

b) ATP synthase complex

c) Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation

d) Chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation

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