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1) A 30-year-old man has been fasting for religious reason for several days.  His brain has reduced its need for glucose by using which of the following substances as an alternate source of energy?

a) Fatty acids

b) Beta hydroxy butyrate

c) Glycerol

d) Beta carotene

2) A 7-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department by her parents with complaints of severe polyuria and Polydipsia. Laboratory examination reveals ketones in her urine. Which of the followings is the most likely source of ketones?

a) Fatty acid breakdown

b) Protein break down

c) Glycogenolysis

d) Gluconeogenesis.

3) A breast-fed infant began to vomit frequently and lose weight. Several days later she developed jaundice, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataract. What is the possible cause for these symptoms? 

a) Galactosemia

b) Von-Gierke’s disease

c) Juvenile diabetes Mellitus

d) Hereditary fructose intolerance

4) The major metabolic product produced under normal circumstances by erythrocytes and by muscle cells during intense exercise is recycled through liver in the Cori cycle. The metabolite is-

a) Oxaloacetate

b) Alanine

c) Glycerol

d) Lactate

5) A 3-month-old infant presents with hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive. A liver biopsy reveals glycogen with an abnormal, amylopectin like structure with long outer chains and missing branches.  Which of the following enzymes would most likely be deficient?

a) Alpha Amylase

b) Branching enzyme

c)  Debranching enzyme

d) Glycogen phosphorylase                  

6) Prior to a race, many marathon runners will try to increase their glycogen concentrations by loading up with foods with a high starch content, such as pasta. Alpha amylase secreted by the pancreas  will digest the starch into which of the following major products?

a) Amylose, amylopectin, and maltose

b) Glucose, galactose, and fructose

c) Glucose, sucrose, and maltotriose

d) Limit dextrins, maltose, and maltotriose

7) Which of the following substrates cannot contribute to net Gluconeogenesis in mammalian liver?

a) Alanine

b) Glutamate

c) Palmitate

d) Pyruvate

8) Which of the following complications is less likely to occur in type II diabetics, as opposed to type I diabetics?

a) Retinopathy

b) Weight gain

c) Cardiovascular disease

d) Hypoglycemic coma

9) Familial fructokinase deficiency causes no symptoms because

a) Hexokinase can phosphorylate fructose

b) Liver Aldolase can metabolize it

c) Excess fructose does not escape in to urine

d) Excess fructose is excreted through feces.

10) Which of the followings generates free glucose during the enzymatic breakdown of glycogen in skeletal muscles?

a) Phosphorylase

b) α-1-6-amyloglucosidase

c) Debranching enzyme

d) Glucose-6-phosphatase


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